morphological principles the various visual image-symbols are divided
into zoomorphic, vegetable, anthropomorphous and hieroglyphic ones.
They are visual personifications of some idea or abstract notion
often bearing benevolent meaning. They can also be associated with
some positive moral or physical human features.
The most popular
are the images symbolizing life values of society: longevity, wealth,
happiness, plenty of male descendants, successful official career.
Among them since ancient times the most popular have been Dragon
and Phoenix. These images appear in ancient myths dated by the preliterate
period of history.
visual symbols are widely used in contemporary interiors. They can
appear as picturesque wall hangings, relief adornments of columns,
embroideries for curtains and chair covers, compositions of decorative
carving. Among vegetable symbols the most widely used images are
bamboo, pine and lotus.
always plays an essential role in the interior. In Chinese culture
the color palette and its semantics are rather conventional. There
are 5 basic colors: red, yellow, blue-green (all shades from blue
to green), white and black.
Red color stands
for the elements of the Fire and the Sun, serves as a symbol of
happiness, good luck and joy. Yellow refers to land fertility and
prosperity of nation; it is also a color of supreme imperial power.
Blue-green is a color of water and sky. White color indicates purity
and wisdom, but also can symbolize sorrow and mourning. Black is
a color of virtue and honor.
are regulated by certain rules. Owing to considered and proven by
ages standards of color combinations painted details impress so
much. For example, the background of ceilings is accomplished in
blue and green shades, and the ornament is painted with red, gold
and even black colors.
Dragon ( Lung ) was a symbol of power, force, wisdom, grandeur,
good fortune, might, male Yang, light force. Dragon most frequently
appeared on court clothes. Dragons commanded winds and rains.
symbolized female Yin, Moon, longevity and wealth.
in ancient Chinese mythology was regarded as a miraculous bird.
With his appearance on the Earth peace and serenity came to the
was a herald of good fortune and luck. It is the most powerful and
courage and justice. In China Buddha was called ¡°a lion among people¡±.
embodied the King of the animals, master of the forest in the Far-Eastern
tradition. It was the symbol of vital force and fertility. In China
tiger was a holy animal of the goddess Xi Wangmu, haunter of the
demons. The god of wealth and the goddess of Wind rode on tigerback.
symbolized water, Moon, time, immortality. The images of Turtle
and Dragon were the symbols of indestructibility: Dragon could not
overwhelm Turtle, Turtle could not haul up to Dragon.
a symbol of the Great Mother and the Queen of Heaven in Tibetan
was an animal, falling from the Heaven. It was also a symbol of
fertility, abundance and renewal.
was a token of fertility and wealth, sign of spiritual freedom and
perfection. Buddhists regard Fish as a symbol of a man of free spirit
neglecting obstacles and restrictions in his craving for enlightenment.
a symbol of spring and fertility, contemplator of wisdom.
deer personified longevity, high rank and wealth; it was also a
token of love passion.
was associated with happiness and welfare. White Deer was a token
of the God of immortality.
was a divine racer.
fidelity, affection and faithful love.
was a lunar symbol, personification of silence (the lizard was considered
to be tongueless) and divine wisdom. It was also a custodian of
family and hearth.
symbolized male Yang, Sun, power, military valor, courage, persistence,
keen eyesight, fearlessness.
was a symbol of the Sun, immortality, love and eternal life; it
was also the emblem of Ming dynasty. Peacock feather was accorded
to at obtaining high rank and served as a token of emperor¡¯s favor.
personified fertility, matrimonial fidelity and longevity.
was a traditional symbol of good luck.
Crane were symbols of longevity, happy and peaceful old age,
filial respectfulness and reclusion.
Oriole personified the Sun in China.
symbolized fertility and prosperity. It was regarded to be of noble,
divine, royal origin. Similar to lotus blossom it personified purity
and enlightenment of the spirit free from earth bonds.
was a symbol of courage, valor and force. Red cock protected from
the fire. In Chinese language the words ¡°cock¡± and ¡°crow¡± sounded
similarly to ¡°honor¡± and ¡°glory¡±.
signified matrimonial bliss, fidelity and beauty.
Lotus personified purity and enlightenment of spirit.
bamboo and chimonantus praecox ( ¡°winter flower¡± ) were the
symbols of winter fortitude.
symbolized wealth and luxury.
was associated with severity and strength of mind.
buds were personification of endless merry-go-round of life.